The Model of Friendly Work Environment for Older Employees in Slovenia
In the context of demographic changes and active aging in the workplace, managing age diversity contributes to creating new perspectives across the entire field of human resource management. The main objective of this paper is to determine the impact of appropriate working conditions and training programs for older employees on the work motivation of older employees, as well as to determine the impact of work motivation on the work engagement of older employees in Slovenia. In the medium-sized and large companies that were involved in the research, we surveyed employers and older employees: in the questionnaire, employers indicated their agreement to the listed statements about appropriate working conditions and training programs for older employees, and older employees indicated their agreement to the listed statements about work motivation and work engagement. Structural equation modelling has been proven useful in exploring the links between these four constructs. Results show that appropriate working conditions and training programs for older employees have a positive impact on the work motivation of older employees and that the work motivation of older employees has a positive impact on the work engagement of older employees.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Bal, P., Jansen, P. (2016), "Workplace flexibility across the lifespan", Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 34, pp. 43-99.
Brooke, L. (2003), "Human resource costs and benefits of maintaining a mature-age workforce", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 260-283.
Chronbach, L. J. (1951), "Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests", Psychometrika, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 297–334.
Claes, R., Heymans, M. (2008), "HR professionals views on work motivation and retention of older workers: a focus group study", Career Development International, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 95-111.
Davies, E., Hanley, K., Jenkins, A., Chan, C. (2017), "Learning and Training for Older Workers", in Flynn, M., Li, Y. and Chiva, A. (Eds.), Managing the Ageing Workforce in the East and the West (The Changing Context of Managing People), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 185-206.
Greller, M. M. (2006), "Hours invested in professional development during late career as a function of career motivation and satisfaction", Career Development International, Vol. 11, pp. 544-559.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. (2010), Multivariate data analysis, Upper Saddle River, Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ilmarinen, J. (2001), "Aging workers", Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Vol. 55, No. 8, pp. 546-552.
Ilmarinen, J. (2006), "Towards a longer worklife! Ageing and the quality of worklife in the European Union", available at www.sopol.at/document/download/towards-a-longer-worklife (13.1.2020)
Ilmarinen, J. (2012), „Promoting active ageing in the workplace", available at: https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/articles/promoting-active-ageing-in-the-workplace (12.1.2020)
Kaiser, H. F. (1974), "An index of factorial simplicity", Psychometrika, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 31-36.
Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L. (2004), "Aging, adult development, and work motivation", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 440-458.
Kock, N. (2019), WarpPLS User Manual: Version 6.0. ScriptWarp Systems, Laredo, Texas.
Kooij, D., De Lange, A., Jansen, P. (2008), "Older workers' motivation to continue to work: five meanings of age: a conceptual review", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 364-394.
Korsakienė, R., Raišienė, A. G., Bužavaitė, M. (2017), "Work engagement of older employees: do employee and work related factors matter?", Economics & Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 151-160.
Lichtenthaler, P., Fischbach, A. (2016), "Job crafting and motivation to continue working beyond retirement age", Career Development International, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 477-497.
Magnavita, N. (2017), "Productive aging, work engagement and participation of older workers. A triadic approach to health and safety in the workplace", Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 1-8.
Nahrgang J. D., Morgeson F. P., Hofmann D. A. (2011), "Safety at work: a meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 71-94.
OECD. (2019), "Ageing and demographic change", available at: https://www.oecd.org/economy/ageing-inclusive-growth/ (20.1.2020)
Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., Crawford, E. R. (2010), "Job engagement: antecedents and effects on job performance", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 617-635.
Robinson, D., Perryman, S., Hayday, S. (2004), "The drivers of employee engagement", available at: http://www.employmentstudies.co.uk/report-summary-drivers-employee-engagement (15.1.2020)
Rožman, M., Treven, S., Čančer, V. (2017), "Motivation and satisfaction of employees in the workplace", Business Systems Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 14-25.
Rožman, M., Treven, S., Mulej, M., Čančer, V. (2019), "Creating a healthy working environment for older employees as part of social responsibility", Kybernetes, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 1045-1059.
Seligman, M. E. P., Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000), "Positive psychology: an introduction", American Psychologist, Vol. 55, pp. 5-14.
Slovenian companies Act (CA-1). (2017), „The Companies Act", available at: http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=ZAKO4291# (14.1.2020)
Smyer, M. A., Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2007), "The meanings of work for older workers", Generations, Vol. 31, pp. 23-30.
Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S. (2013), Using multivariate statistics, Pearson Education, Boston.
Zwick, T. (2015), "Training older employees: what is effective?", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 136-150.